Category Archives: Basic Sciences

Urinary System

Functions of the Urinary System Excretion – nitrogenous, drugs and toxins Maintaining blood volume and concentration balance of water and dissolved salts pH regulation Blood pressure maintenance Renin Erythrocyte concentration Erythropoietin Vitamin D effects Coverings of the Kidney PARARENAL FAT … Continue reading

Posted in Urinary System | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Location of Ureters

There are a few important landmarks to keep in mind when asked about the ureters. The ureters originate bilaterally at the renal pelvis and course within the retroperitoneum inferiorly toward the bladder, initially on top of the psoas muscles. Midway … Continue reading

Posted in Anatomy | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

Holoprosencephaly Malformation

Autopsy of an infant who died on his second day of life reveals fuse cerebral hemispheres. The midline forebrain fissure is completely absent. Other abnormalities include the presence of a single ventricle, fused basal ganglia, and absent olfactory nerves. This … Continue reading

Posted in Pathology | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Cherry Hemangiomas (Angiomas)

The small, vascular bright-red, papular lesions shown on the image are called cherry hemangiomas and are the most common being vascular tumors in adults. Cherry hemangiomas appear during the most common benign vascular tumors in adults. Cherry hemangiomas appear during … Continue reading

Posted in Pathology | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Hereditary Hypothalamic Diabetes Insipidus

Neurophysins are carrier proteins for oxytocin and vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH), hormones produced within the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, respectively, and released from the posterior pituitary. Like the hormones they accompany, neurophysins are produced within the neuronal cell bodies of … Continue reading

Posted in Physiology | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency

A thirty-year-old woman presented with progressive shortness of breath. She denied the use cigarettes. A family history revealed that her sister had suffered from unexplained lung disease. What etiology most likely explains this patient’s pulmonary symptoms? Alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency This … Continue reading

Posted in Biochemistry | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

CD4 + TH lymphocyte stimulation

A 44-year-old male with chronic cough and progressive weight loss is found to have septum cultures positive for acid-fast bacilli. A lung biopsy obtained from this patient reveals the histology shown below. The finding indicated on the slide most likely … Continue reading

Posted in Immunology | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment