Category Archives: Anatomy

Urinary System

Functions of the Urinary System Excretion – nitrogenous, drugs and toxins Maintaining blood volume and concentration balance of water and dissolved salts pH regulation Blood pressure maintenance Renin Erythrocyte concentration Erythropoietin Vitamin D effects Coverings of the Kidney PARARENAL FAT … Continue reading

Posted in Urinary System | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Location of Ureters

There are a few important landmarks to keep in mind when asked about the ureters. The ureters originate bilaterally at the renal pelvis and course within the retroperitoneum inferiorly toward the bladder, initially on top of the psoas muscles. Midway … Continue reading

Posted in Anatomy | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

Long Thoracic Nerve Injury

A 24-year-old male complains of clumsiness of his right arm. The patient is asked a wall and push against it with both hands. Abnormal prominence of the right inferior scapular angle is observed during the maneuver. What muscle/muscles is most … Continue reading

Posted in Anatomy | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Obturator Nerve Injury

The obturator  nerve is the only nerve that exits the pelvis via the obturator foramen. This nerve innervates the adductor compartment of the thigh after dividing into anterior and posterior branches subsequent to leaving the pelvis. The anterior branch innervates … Continue reading

Posted in Anatomy | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Gastroduodenal Artery Ulcer

A 52-year-old Caucasian male is brought to the ER after repeated coffee-ground vomiting. After initial stabilization, endoscopy is performed revealing a deep, bleeding ulcer on the posterior wall of the duodenal bulb. This ulcer has most likely penetrated what artery/arteries? … Continue reading

Posted in Anatomy | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Prepattelar Bursitis (Housemaid knee)

The prepatellar bursa located between the patella and the overlying skin and prepatellar tendon. It is lined by synovium and contains very little fluid. Its function is to diminish friction and ensure maximal range of motion at the knee. Chronic … Continue reading

Posted in Anatomy | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

External Branch of Superior Laryngeal Nerve Injury

A 54-year-old female undergoes thyroidectomy for several thyroid nodules that were suspicious for malignancy on fine needle aspiration. while ligating the superior thyroid artery, the surgeon accidentally serves a nearby nerve. Which muscle/muscles is denervated as a result of this … Continue reading

Posted in Anatomy | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments