Category Archives: Physiology

Hereditary Hypothalamic Diabetes Insipidus

Neurophysins are carrier proteins for oxytocin and vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH), hormones produced within the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, respectively, and released from the posterior pituitary. Like the hormones they accompany, neurophysins are produced within the neuronal cell bodies of … Continue reading

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Aortic Regurgitation (AR)

In patients with AR, there is a large left ventricular stroke volume (LVSV), a large regurgitation SV, and a large pulse pressure. The left ventricular end diastolic volume is also increased due to the incompetent aortic valve. bounding femoral and … Continue reading

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Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)

The three cardinal signs of diabetes mellitus (DM) are polyuria, polydipsia and poyphagia. Undiagnosed DM progress to DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis), DKA can be the initial presentation of DM, especially in patient lacking regular health follow-up. DKA results from a deficiency … Continue reading

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Genetic factors are the most important determinator in peak bone mass.

Bone mass is a major determinant risk for osteoporotic fractures. Bone mass increase during childhood and adolescence, peaking between 20 and 30 years of age. Epidemiological and twin studies have shown than genetic factors are responsible for 75% of the … Continue reading

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